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Basic Linux Commands for Beginners


Today I’m going to show you Basic Linux Commands for beginners, if you using Linux Operating System you should remember the Commands. There are many Linux distributions such as Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, CentOS, OpenSUSE, Mageia, Arch Linux, Slackware Linux, Puppy Linux etc. But you can use commands different distribution same ways, No any difference.

Linux of the most popular operating system, their many Windows Available on the web such as Windows Vista, Windows 7,8,10 and OS X etc. Most computer users using Microsoft Windows, they don’t interested in Linux or OS X.


An operating system is a software program that acts as an interface between a user and a computer. Consists of instructions that are given to the hardware components of the computer to perform specific tasks, such as creating or copying documents and viewing them.

Linux derived from the UNIX operating system, Offers stability, high security, and reliability. Runs on a variety of computer hardware, such as mobile phones, tablets, and mainframes. The source code is freely available to everyone. Popular distributions are Debian, Fedora, Red Hat, SUSE, and Ubuntu.

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Linux is an Open Source Operating System, Open Source Implies Free software. The Software allows users to freely use the source code and customize it to meet individual requirements. Open Source allows users to perform the following tasks:

  • Access the source code of the software.
  • Run the software for commercial or personal use.
  • Customize the source code to meet specific requirements.
  • Redistribution copies of the software.
  • Release the Customized Software to the public in General.

However, The Linux knowledge very deeply, so I don’t enter complete knowledge of Linux. That’s simple knowledge of Linux, I will share Basic Linux Commands for beginners. The Command are very helpful to you, you must remember them.

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Below, I have shared Basic Linux Commands For Beginners with short descriptions. you can learn one by one and try it. After that, you will able to work with any Linux operating system as well.

Basic Linux Commands for Beginners

%mDisplays month of the year (in digits)
%dDisplays day of the month (in digits)
%yDisplays year (last two digits)
%DDisplays date as mm/dd/yy
%HDisplays hour (00 to 23)
%MDisplays minutes (00 to 59)
%SDisplays seconds (00 to 59)
%TDisplays time as HH: MM: SS
-bIndicated the most recent startup time and date
-lLists any login process
-HDisplays a header
-qPrints only the login names and the number of users Logged In
-kSearches for the keywords specified in the available manuals
-aLists all the files including hidden files
-FDisplays the File Type along with the name
-RDisplays the contents of specified directory and sub-directories.
-rDisplays files and sub-directories in the reverse order
-SLists All files sorted by file size
-ADisplays Hidden files and files beginning with
-lDisplays a detailed list of files and directories

Access Permission

Read Permission (r)This means that the contents of the file can be read using cat command. For directories, it means that the content of the directory can be listed with the ls command.
Write Permission (w)This means that the file can be modified and saved. For directories, it means that files can be created in that directory by the user.
Execute Permission (x)This means that files can be executed by the shell when its name is typed at the command prompt.

For directories, the user has the ability to traverse its tree in order to access files or subdirectories.

The files cannot be seen until the permission is set.

Tree Commands

-aDisplay All files, except the hidden files
-dLists the directories only
-fDisplays the full path prefix for each file.
-pDisplays the permission for each file.
-sDisplays the size of each file along with the name
-rSorts the output in reverse alphabetical order
-L LevelSpecifies the maximum display depth of the directory tree

Touch Commands

-aChanges the access time of the file specified. Does not change the modification time unless -m is also specified.
-cDoes not create a new file if the file already exists.
-fAttempts to force the execution of touch even if there are read and write restrictions on a file.
-mChanges only the modification time.
-rUses the access and modification times of the file.

Cat Commands

-nPrecedes each line with a line number
-uDoes not buffer the output
-eDisplays a character $ at the end of each line
-bOmits line numbers from blank lines
-r fileDisplays tabs in the output

Shutdown Commands

-hHalts After Shutdown
-rReboot after Shutdown
-cCancels a pending shutdown

Above all Basic Linux Commands for Beginners, you can use them for a different purpose. These are very helpful to you. You should try them after that you will able to run any task using commands as well.

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